TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION METHODS.

A water distribution system is a part of water supply network with components that carry potable water from a centralized treatment plant or wells to water consumers in order to adequately deliver water to satisfy residential, commercial, industrial and fire fighting requirements.

Distribution system is used to describe collectively the facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of usage.

Requirement of good distribution system

  • Water quality should not get deteriorated in the distribution pipes.
  • It should be capable of supplying water at all the intended places with sufficient pressure head.
  • It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of water during fire fighting.
  • The layout should be such that no consumer would be without water supply, during the repair of any section of the system.
  • All the distribution pipes should be preferably laid one meter away or above the sewer lines.
  • It should be fairly water tight as to keep losses due to leakage to the minimum.

Layout of distribution network
  • The distribution pipes are generally laid below the road pavements and as such their layouts generally follow the layouts of roads.
  • There are in general four different types of pipes networks, any one of which either singly or in combinations can be used for a particular place.
They are given below :

1. Dead end system
2. Radial system
3. Grid iron system
4. Ring system


1. Dead end system
  • It is suitable for old towns and cities having no definite pattern of roads. It is also known as Tree system.
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Advantages
  • It is relatively cheap.
  • Determination of discharges and pressure easier due to less number of valves.
Disadvantages
  • Due to many dead ends, stagnation of water occurs in pipes.

2. Radial system
  • The area is divided into different zones.
  • The water is pumped into the distribution reservoir kept in the middle of each zone.
  • The supply pipes are laid radially ending towards the periphery.
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Advantages
  • It gives quick service.
  • Calculation of pipe sizes is easy.

3. Grid iron system
  • It is suitable for cities with rectangular layout, where the water mains and branched are laid in rectangles.
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Advantages
  • Water is kept in good circulation due to the absence of dead ends.
  • In the case of breakdown in some section, water is available from some other direction.
Disadvantages
  • Exact calculation of sizes of pipes is not possible due to provision of valves on all branches.

4. Ring system
  • The supply main is laid all along the peripheral roads and sub mains branch out from the mains.
  • This system also follows the grid iron system with the flow pattern similar in character to that of dead end system.
  • So, determination of the size of pipes is easy.
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Advantages
  • Water can be supplied to any point from at least two direction.
  • No stagnation of water
  • Repair works can be done without affecting larger network.


Disadvantages
  • Longer length and large diameter pipes are required.
  • More number of cutoff valves are necessary.
  • Skilled workers are necessary while laying pipes.







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