TYPES OF PIPES USED IN BUILDING FOR PLUMBING WORKS.

Pipes are used in buildings to serve following purposes.

1. To supply water everywhere in the building
2. For the disposal of rain water above the ground
3. To dispose water from water closets and washbasin etc
4. To drain soil & waste water to septic tanks or town sewers.
5. The principal types of pipes that are available in the market to serve the above mentioned purposes are as follow.



1. CAST IRON PIPES

Cast iron pipes and fitting are primarily used for designing of soil and rain water disposal systems. Cast iron pipe is made majorly from gray cast iron. These pipes are made by the sand cast process or by spinning.

Characteristics of Cast iron pipes

  • They are less costly compare to G.I pipes.
  • They are strong and durable.
  • They are easily jointed.
  • They are very ductile in manner so can not bear the impact load. They have low impact strength.
  • They get rust and corrode.


2. PLASTIC OR PVC PIPES

Generally PVC pipes have three types which are given below.
A. Unplasticized PVC (UPVC) or rigid pipes for use with cold water
B. Plasticized PVC pipes which are plasticized with addition of rubber. It has lower strength and lower working temperature than UPVC pipes.
C. Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) pipes which can withstand higher temperatures upto 1200 (used to carry hot water)
For pipes used in soil and waste water discharge systems, the thickness of the wall will be larger than that of used for roof drainage.


Characteristics of PVC pipes.
  • They are low cost pipes with high stiffness in rigid manner or high flexibility in flexible manner.
  • They are good in strength and flexibility.
  • They do not get rust and corrode.
  • They have high impact strength.
  • They can resist alkalies and acids.
  • They are not affected by UV rays so can be use in outdoor space.
  • These pipes are cheaper than GI pipes.


3. COPPER PIPES

Copper pipe is most often used for heating systems, and as a refrigerant line in HVAC systems. It is slowly being replaced by PEX tubing in hot and cold water applications. There are two basic types of copper pipes

A. Soft copper pipe
Soft (or ductile) copper tubing can be bent easily to travel around obstacles in the path of the tubing.

B. Rigid copper pipe
Rigid copper pipe can be achieve by  work hardening of the drawing process. They are generally used for water lines.

Characteristics of copper pipe

  • They are highly resistance to corrosion.
  • They have considerable strength and ductility.
  • They can be used for cold and hot water supply.
  • They are costly.


4. GALVANIZED IRON (GI) PIPES

GI pipes are made from steel pipes. The galvanizing process imparts a thin coating of zinc which protects it from corrosion.

They are available in light, medium and heavy grades depending on the thickness of the metal. For a 15 mm GI pipe, the thicknesses are 2.0, 2.65 & 3.25 for the light, medium and heavy grades, respectively. Generally the medium grade pipes are used for internal plumbing in building.

Characteristics of G.I pipes

  • Higher durability and longevity.
  • Superior finish and anti - rust coating.
  • Greater resistance to corrosion.
  • Superior bend ability, ease of cutting and threading.
  • These pipes corrode easily if carries in brackish water or get concealed in lime concrete and brickwork or buried under the ground.
  • These pipes are costlier than PVC pipes.

5. PEX PIPES

These pipes are used predominantly in building services pipework systems, hydronic radiant heating and cooling systems, domestic water piping, and insulation for high tension (high voltage) electrical cables. PEX pipe is flexible and easier to install than a rigid pipe, and it offers high heat-resistance and long-term durability. PEX tubing is widely used to replace copper in plumbing applications.

Characteristics of PEX pipes

  • These pipes are cross linked polythelene pipes.
  • They are flexible in manner. 
  • Initial cost of these pipes are higher.
  • Installation process of theses pipes are fast and requires low maintenance.
  • They are better in heat resistance so can be used for hot and cold water supply.
  • They are Non-corrodible so, they does not affected by oxidation and corrosion.
  • It can not resist the UV rays so It can't use in outdoor because UV rays can damage the plastic layer of pipes.
  • They get easily perforation by plant feeding insects.



6. STONEWARE PIPES

These pipes are made of burning soft soil at high temperature. These pipes are available in the form of internal diameters 10 mm to 600 mm with thickness varying from 12 mm to 43 mm.

These pipes are extensively used as underground drainage pipes in low cost construction buildings. Usually these pipes are laid on an even bed of concrete and further treated as specified for laying in different types of soils. However laying of these pipes requires experienced workmen and good supervisor. Therefore PVC pipes are being preferred to these pipes in many places.

Characteristics of Stoneware pipes.

  • They are strong and durable
  • These pipes are cheap.
  • They are rustproof and corrosion proof.
  • They can resist the attack of alkalies and acids.
  • They have low impact strength.


7. ASBESTOS CEMENT (AC) PIPES

These pipes are made of cement and asbestos. These pipes are used for drainage of rainwater from roofs, soil and waste and also for ventilation. They come in two profiles – one with beading around socket (WB) and the other without beading around socket (WOB). The latter type is more common than the former.

The pipes come in lengths of 3 meters. The principal defects of these pipes are that they are heavy and they break easily.

Characteristics of Asbestos pipes 

  • These pipes are cheaper than PVC pipes.
  • They are corrosion proof.
  • They have low impact strength.
  • Their joint is difficult to install.


8. CONCRETE PIPES

Unreinforced pipes of small diameters as well as reinforced and prestressed concrete pipes of large diameters are available for water supply and other uses.

Small unreinforced concrete pipes are very much used for drainage of rain water.

Large diameter pipes are generally used for major water supply works.

Characteristics of Concrete pipes

  • They have good strength and durability.
  • They are high resistance to corrosion.
  • They have good impact strength.
  • They are costly.

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