### IS-10262-2009-CONCRETE MIX DESIGN – INDIAN STANDARD METHOD

The following points should be remembered before proportioning a concrete mix a per IS-10262-2009.
• This method of concrete mix proportioning is applicable only for ordinary and standard concrete grades.
• The air content in concrete is considered as nil.
• The proportioning is carried out to achieve specified characteristic compressive strength at specified age, workability of fresh concrete and durability requirements.
This method of concrete mix design consist of following 11 steps
1. Design specification
2. Testing of materials
3. Calculating target strength for mix proportioning
4. Selecting water/cement ratio
5. Calculating water content
6. Calculating cement content
7. Finding out volume proportions for Coarse aggregate & fine aggregate
8. Mix calculations
9. Trial mixing
10. Measurement of workability by slump test method
11. Repeating the trial mixing
Let us discuss all of the above steps in detail

STEP-1. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
This is the step where we gather all the required information for designing a concrete mix from the client. The data required for mix proportioning is as follows.

• Grade designation (whether M10, M15, M20 etc)
• Type of cement to be used
• Maximum nominal size of aggregates
• Minimum & maximum cement content
• Maximum water-cement ratio
• Workability
• Exposure conditions (As per IS-456-Table-4)
• Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing
• Method of transporting & placing
• Early age strength requirement (if any)

• Type of aggregate (angular, sub angular, rounded etc)
• Type of admixture to be used (if any)

STEP-2. TESTING OF MATERIALS
The table given below shows the list of most necessary tests to be done on cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and admixture. After doing the test, store the test data for further calculation.

STEP-3. TARGET STRENGTH CALCULATION
Calculate the target compressive strength of concrete using the formula given below.
fck’ = fck + 1.65s
Where,
fck’ = Target compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2.
fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2. (same as grade of concrete, see table below)
s = Standard deviation

The value of standard deviation, given in the table below, can be taken for initial calculation.

STEP-4. SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT RATIO
For preliminary calculation, water cement ratio as given is IS-456-Table 5 (also given below) for different environmental exposure condition, may be used.

Note: Use Table-1 for finding out water-cement ratio of Plain Concrete and use Table-2 for finding out water-cement ratio of Reinforced Concrete.

Refer the table given below (As per IS-456) to choose right type of environment depending upon different exposure conditions to concrete.

STEP-5. SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT
Selection of water content depends upon a number of factors such as

Aggregate size, shape & texture
Workability
Water cement ratio
Type of cement and its amount
Type of admixture and environmental conditions.
Factors that can reduce water demand are as follows

Using increased aggregate size
Reducing water cement ratio
Reducing the slump requirement
Using rounded aggregate
Factors that can increase water demand are as follows

Increased temp. at site
Increased cement content
Increased slump
Increased water cement ratio
Increased aggregate angularity
Decrease in proportion of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate
The quantity of maximum mixing water per unit volume of concrete may be selected from the table given below.

Maximum water content per cubic meter of concrete for nominal maximum size of aggregate

The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for angular coarse aggregate and for a slump value in between 25 to 50mm.

Do the following adjustments if the material used differs from the specified condition.

For sub angular aggregate Reduce the selected value by 10kg
For gravel with crushed stone Reduce the selected value by 20kg
For rounded gravel Reduce the selected value by 25kg
For every addition of 25mm slump Increase the selected value by 3%
If using plasticizer Decrease the selected value by 5-10%
If using super plasticizer Decrease the selected value by 20-30%
Note: Aggregates should be used in saturated surface dry condition. While computing the requirement of mixing water, allowance shall be made for the free surface moisture contributed by the fine and coarse aggregates. On the other hand, if the aggregate are completely dry, the amount of mixing water should be increased by an amount equal to moisture likely to be absorbed by the aggregate

STEP-6. CALCULATING CEMENTIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT
From the water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of cement, calculate the amount of cementious material. After calculating the quantity of cementious material, compare it with the values given in the table shown in Step-4. The greater of the two values is then adopted.

If any mineral admixture (such as fly ash) is to be used, then decide the percentage of mineral admixture to be used based on project requirement and quality of material.

STEP-7. FINDING OUT VOLUME PROPORTIONS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE & FINE AGGREGATE
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate is given in the following table.

The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for a water-cement ratio of 0.5 and based on aggregates in saturated surface dry condition.

If water-cement ratio other than 0.5 is to be used then apply correction using the rule given below.

Rule: For every increase or decrease by 0.05 in water-cement ratio, the above values will be decreased or increased by 0.01, respectively.

If the placement of concrete is done by a pump or where is required to be worked around congested reinforcing steel, it may be desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate content determined as above, upto 10 percent.

After calculating volume of coarse aggregate, subtract it from 1, to find out the volume of fine aggregate.

STEP-8. MIX CALCULATIONS
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be done as follows.

STEP-9. TRIAL MIX
Conduct a trial mix as per the amount of material calculated above.

STEP-10. MEASUREMENT OF WORKABILITY (BY SLUMP CONE METHOD)
The workability of  the trial mix no.1 shall be measured. The mix shall be carefully observed for freedom from segregation and bleeding and its finishing properties.

STEP-11. REPEATING TRIAL MIXES
If the measured workability of trial mix no.1 is different from stipulated value, the water and/or admixture content shall be adjusted suitably. With this adjustment, the mix proportion shall be recalculated keeping the free water-cement ratio at pre-selected value.

Trial-2 – increase water or admixture, keeping water-cement ratio constant

Trial-3 – Keep water content same as trial-2, but increase water-cement ratio by 10%.

Trial-4 – Keep water content same as trial-2, but decrease water-cement ratio by 10%

Trial mix no 2 to 4 normally provides sufficient information, including the relationship between compressive strength and water-cement ratio.