Showing posts from March, 2020


DAMP-PROOFING One of the basic requirement in case of all buildings is that the structure should remain dry as far as possible. If this condition is not satisfied, it is likely that the building may become un-habitable and unsafe from structural point of view. Hence in order to prevent damp into a building, courses provided at various levels of entry of damp into a building which is known as damp-proofing. Thus the provision of damp-proofing courses prevent the moisture entry into the building. Causes of dampness : Various causes which are responsible for the entry of dampness in a structure are as follows : 1. Rising of moisture from the ground: The ground on which the building is constructed may be made of soils which easily allow water to pass. Usually, building materials used for foundations, absorb moisture from capillary motion. Thus dampness finds its way to enter into a building. 2. Action of rain : If the faces of wall exposed to heavy shower of rain, are n


Building material is an any material used for construction purpose like for building a structure. Cement, aggregates, steel, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction. The choice of these are based on their cost effectiveness and quality of material for building projects. To check quality of these material, we have to conduct some test on it. Here below the list of those tests are given for particular material. 1. Tests to check cement quality Float test  Shape test Temperature test  Color test Rubbing test Check for lumps Manufacture date check Above mention tests are field test of cement which we can perform on site. Fineness test Consistency test Initial and final setting time test Soundness test Compressive strength test Specific gravity test Above mention tests are lab test. 2. Tests to check sand quality Clay test Organic impurities test Salt taste test Earthy matters test Above mention tests


A tensile test applies tensile force to material and measures specimen's response to the stress. It determines following properties of specimen. 1.Elastic limit 2.Yeild strength 3.Ultimate tensile strength 4.Fracture strength 5.Resilience 6.Toughness 1. Elastic limit When a material subjected to tensile load a material starts deformation or extension but when the load is removed, the deformation is completely recovered. This limit is termed as elastic limit. 2. Yeild strength When a material subjected to tensile stress and stress beyond the elastic limit plastic deformation occurs and this plastic deformation are not regain its original shape. A material on this point is called yeild strength. 3. Ultimate tensile strength It is a maximum stress bearing capacity of material when it is subjected to loading. It is a strength prior to material start occuring necking. 4. Fracture strength Fracture is a separation of  a material and fracture strength is


1. COMPRESSIVE LOAD It is defined as the maximum compressive load a body can bear or resist prior to failure. The direction of force is towards the object. It apply perpendicular to plan. comressive load acting on object 2. TENSILE LOAD It is defined as the maximum tensile load a body can withstand before failure. The direction of force is opposite to object. It apply perpendicular to plan.  tensile load acting on object 3. SHEAR LOAD It is defined as the maximum shear load a body can bear without disturbing its alignment. The direction of load is parallel to plan. SHEAR FORCE ACTING ON OBJECT                                                           4.TORSION LOAD It is the maximum amount of torsional stress a body can withstand before it fails. It is also known as twisting load. TORSION LOAD ACTING ON OBJECT                                                                                                                   


PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a non-metallic product obtained as a by product from the blast furnaces used to make iron. Ground granulated blast furnace slag consists of silicates and aluminates of calcium and other bases. The size of its particles is less than 45 microns and specific surface area is about 300 to 400 m 2 /kg. In simple words, ground granulated blast furnace slag is a waste product in the manufacture of pig iron. Approximately 300kg of slag is produced for each tonne of pig iron. Chemically, it’s a mixture of lime, silica and alumina which are also found in most of the cementitious substances. Blast furnace slag varies in composition and physical structure depending on the method of cooling of the slag. Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) or Fly ash  Fly ash or pulverized fuel ash (PFA) is the residue from the combustion of pulverized coal collected by mechanical or electron


Internal Painting Works Paint is a final finish on wall and it should be done with care and should be checked during various stages as per checklist. Points to remember before start paint on wall All civil and electrical works should be complete Main door erected with locking arrangements Wall surface dry checked Alkalinity of wall surface should be checked Dirt and dust particles removed off from wall surface by papering Electrical boards/switches/windows/decorative pieces /covered properly with masking tape Floor should be covered by plastic thin film or pop material. Material - Primer, paint, putty, to be used of approved brand /color / shade/ texture. Brush /roller /water paper/ emery paper/sand paper to be used standard Procedures to be followed during internal painting Primer coat applied ( 1st coat) as specified Putty applied over primer (to eliminate the undulations in wall ) as specified Papering of putty done Gattu Primer coat applied ( 2n