Showing posts from 2020


Aluminium is one of Earth’s most abundant metals known for its lightness, strength and resistance to corrosion. Untreated aluminium extrusions are perfectly adequate for many applications; however, there are many valid reasons to treat the surface of aluminium profiles. These include introducing colour, supplementing corrosion resistance; augmenting hardness; arresting wear-and-tear; and adding reflectivity.

Anodising is a relatively straightforward electrochemical process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of aluminium.

Powder coating is a technique mainly used to apply decorative and protective finishes to aluminium profiles through a process that electrostatically charges the powder consisting of a mixture of finely milled resin and pigment, spraying it on to the aluminium extrusion, and then fusing it into a smooth coating in a curing oven.

Advantages of anodised coatings

1. Easy to maintain
2. Anodised aluminium can be cleaned periodically with wa…


In conventional concrete, micro cracks are developed in concrete due to drying shrinkage and other causes like weather, temperature, insufficient curing, vibrations etc. This cracks are occur even before the loading on the slab. When the structure is loaded, this cracks will open up and start propagate which further damage the slab. The development of such micro cracks is the main reason of inelastic deformation in the concrete.

This cracks makes concrete weaker. To prevent this thing, Closely spaced and uniformly dispersed fibers are added in concrete to make concrete more stronger. This addition of fibers substantially improve the static and dynamic properties of concrete. These fibers offer increased resistance to growth of crack and improves the tensile strength and durability of concrete.

Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) can be defined as composite material consisting of concrete and uniform dispersed fine fibers. The continuous meshes, woven fabrics and long wires are not considere…


Points to be note before laying
1. Clean the whole mother slab and remove loose mortar particles and other impurities.

2. Make tags / buttons for level references.
3. Check the availability of materials- /Cement, sand adhesive chemicals etc.
4. Check quality of granite / marble.
5. Cure the slab cause to avoid absorption of cement slurry from the mortar.
6. Check the drawings for any services like electrical consuit or plumbing lines.

Points to be note during the fixing
1. check the drawing for given pattern or design.
2. Maintain proper slop or flat surface as per requirement.
3. Appropriate proportion of bedding mortar or required thickness of adhesive chemicals.
4. Check for proper diagonal and size of stone slab.
5. Cleaning the joints.

Points to be note after the fixing
1. Finished surface cleaned properly.
2. Check for any hollow sound and any type of crack.
3. Curing for 7 days after fixing.


Aluminium window is one of the most general choice in house which gives good aesthetic values. If it is not installed correctly then it spoils the looks of building and work of execution quality.

Checklist is a important record it helps us in order to get work done correctly and it ensure we do not miss any point to check which is important from aspect of Quality of work.

Checklist of Aluminium Sliding Window Works consist following important points.

Procedures to be followed before fixing

1. Material checked as specified (variation in wt. not more than +/-10%)
2. Check necessary drawings which showing details of AC ,exhaust fan, mosquito net location.
3. Plaster work and framing work should be completed.
4. Window frame sill should given outward slop.

Procedures to be followed during fixing

1. Horizontal and vertical members joined at 45ยบ and joint kept hairline
2. Tracks checked for numbers and defects
3. Distance of frame from corner of jambs checked (before fixing)
4. Holes drilled in bottom …


Flush Door:
A flush Door has completely flat surfaces on both side. They are made by sandwiching light weight wooden blocks placed vertically in thin ply on both sides. Light weight blocks are glued to each other by resin and it also makes door light weight. They can be finished by either laminates or veneer.

Wooden Door:
A wooden Door is completely manufactured from the solid wood. There are various types of wooden doors available in the market like Paneled Door, Battened Door etc. These Doors are manufactured by joining wooden panels. Wooden Doors can be finished using various types of polishing process which gives them a great aesthetic look.

Difference between flush door and wooden door :

1. Composition

Flush Door are made by using light weight wooden block pieces which are joined by resin and pasted a thin plywood on both side. These Doors are then finished by veneer or mica.

Wooden Door is made from solid wood. There are various types of doors are available like Paneled door, Battened …


Glass is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. Glass is a hard substance which may be transparent or translucent and brittle. The fusion process used to manufacture glasses. In this process, sand is fused with lime, soda, and some other admixtures and then cooled rapidly. Glasses used in construction purposes and architectural purposes in engineering.


1. Transparency 
This property allows visual connection with the outside world. Its transparency can be permanently altered by adding admixtures to the initial batch mix. By the advent of technology clear glass panels used in buildings can be made opaque. (Electro chromatic glazing)

2. U value 
The U-value is the measure of how much heat is transferred through the window. The lower the U-value the better the insulation properties of the glass– the better it is at keeping the heat or cold out.

3. Strength 
Glass is a brittle material but with the advent of science and technology, certain lam…


The slab is the horizontal structural element which takes the various loads acting on it and transfer that loads on to beams around it. The slab may be simply supported, continuous, or cantilever types. The slab is a horizontal element of the building generally made of concrete.

Slabs are categorized into two types:

1. One Way Slab

2. Two Way Slab

1. One Way Slab:

The slab which have supported by beams from only two opposite site to take a load is known as one way slab. The ratio of longer span (x) to shorter span (y) is equal or greater than 2, considered as One way slab because this slab will bend in one direction ( the direction parallel to longer span or direction perpendicular to shorter span )

one way slab and two way slab equation

Cause of the apparently difference in lengths, the load is transferred through the shorter span to beam. Main reinforcement is provided in shorter span and distribution reinforcement in a longer span.

2. Two Way Slab:

The slab which is supported by beams f…


Cladding is a layer beyond to exterior walls of building which imparts a protective and decorative layer to exterior walls. It can be define as exterior finishing system to protect the underlying structure as well as to provide decorative finish. 

Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer. In construction, cladding is used to provide a degree of thermal insulation and weather resistance, and to improve the appearance of buildings.

Cladding can be made of any of a wide range of materials including wood, metal, brick, vinyl and composite materials that can include aluminium, wood, blends of cement (GFRC)

Types of cladding are given below.

1. Types of cladding based on material

Stone claddingVinyl claddingAluminium cladingVitrified tile claddingTimber claddingGlass claddingGFRC sheet claddingBricks claddingStainless steel claddingHPL (High pressure laminate) cladding

2. Types of cladding based on application method.

Dry claddingWet cladding

Types of clad…


A water distribution system is a part of water supply network with components that carry potable water from a centralized treatment plant or wells to water consumers in order to adequately deliver water to satisfy residential, commercial, industrial and fire fighting requirements.

Distribution system is used to describe collectively the facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of usage.

Requirement of good distribution system

Water quality should not get deteriorated in the distribution pipes.It should be capable of supplying water at all the intended places with sufficient pressure head.It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of water during fire fighting.The layout should be such that no consumer would be without water supply, during the repair of any section of the system.All the distribution pipes should be preferably laid one meter away or above the sewer lines.It should be fairly water tight as to keep losses due to leakage to the minimum.
Layout o…