• Some of the aggregates are porous and absorptive. Porosity and water absorption of aggregate will affect the water/cement ratio and hence the workability of concrete. The porosity of aggregate will also affect the durability of concrete when the concrete is subjected to freezing and thawing and also when the concrete is subjected to chemically aggressive liquids. 
  • The water absorption of aggregate is determined by measuring the increase in weight of an oven dry sample when immersed in water for 24 hours. The ratio of the increase in weight to the weight of the dry sample expressed as percentage is known as absorption of aggregate. But when we deal with aggregates in concrete the 24 hours absorption may not be of much significance, on the other hand, the percentage of water absorption during the time interval equal of final set of cement may be of more significance. The aggregate absorbs water in concrete and thus affects the workability and final volume of concrete. The rate and amount of absorption within a time interval equal to the final set of the cement will only be a significant factor rather than the 24 hours absorption of the aggregate. It may be more realistic to consider that absorption capacity of the aggregates which is going to be still less owing to the sealing of pores by coating of cement particle particularly in rich mixes. In allowing for extra water to be added to a concrete mix to compensate for the loss of water due to absorption, proper appreciation of the absorption in particular time interval must be made rather than estimating on the basis of 24 hours absorption. 
  • In proportioning the materials for concrete, it is always taken for granted that the aggregates are saturated and surface dry. In mix design calculation the relative weight of the aggregates are based on the condition that the aggregates are saturated and surface dry. But in practice, aggregates in such ideal condition is rarely met with. Aggregates are either dry and absorptive to various degrees or they have surface moisture. The aggregates may have been exposed to rain or may have been washed in which case they may contain surface moisture or the aggregates may have been exposed to the sun for a long time in which case they are absorptive. Fine aggregates drawn from river bed usually contains surface moisture. When stacked in heap the top portion of the heap may be comparatively dry, but the lower portion of the heap usually contains certain amount of free moisture. It should be noted that if the aggregates are dry they absorb water from the mixing water and thereby affect the workability and, on the other hand, if the aggregates contain surface moisture they contribute extra water to the mix and there by increase the water/cement ratio. Both these conditions are harmful for the quality of concrete. In making quality concrete, it is very essential that corrective measures should be taken both for absorption and for free moisture so that the water/cement ratio is kept exactly as per the design.
  • Very often at the site of concrete work we may meet dry coarse aggregate and moist fine aggregate. The absorption capacity of the coarse aggregate is of the order of about 0.5 to 1 per cent by weight of aggregate. A higher absorption value may be met with aggregates derived from sand stone or other soft and porous rocks. 
  • Free moisture in both coarse aggregate and fine aggregate affects the quality of concrete in more than one way. In case of weigh batching, determination of free moisture content of the aggregate is necessary and then correction of water/cement ratio to be effected in this regard. But when volume batching is adopted, the determination of moisture content of fine aggregate does not become necessary but the consequent bulking of sand and correction of volume of sand to give allowance for bulking becomes necessary. 


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