TYPES OF TESTS PERFORMING ON BRICKS TO CHECK QUALITY.

A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Bricks are second most essential material after concrete in construction of building. The quality of construction is depend upon the quality of material hence we have to check materials wisely. some important tests can  perform on bricks to ensure the quality of it for making the good quality construction. These tests described below.


  1. Crushing strength or compressive strength test
  2. Water Absorption test
  3. Presence of soluble salts or Efflorescence test
  4. Hardness test
  5. Size, Shape and Color test
  6. Soundness test
  7. Structure test (Internal materials)
  8. Impact test
1. Crushing strength or compressive strength test :
This test is performed on the bricks to determine the compressive strength or crushing strength. It shall check on the compressive test machine. Generally we take 5 specimen of bricks for testing in laboratory. After placing the brick on comressive testing machine, start to apply load on brick until it breaks. The maximum load on which brick starts cracking itself is noted. This test is repeated on all 5 specimens one by one to get average of result. This result shows crushing strength of brick.

2.Water absorption test :
This test is perform to check the permeability of brick. Take a specimen of brick in dry condition. Weigh this brick and note its weight as W1. Now submerge the full brick into bucket of water for 24 hours. After immersion of 24 hours, Take the specimen out and weigh it in wet condition. Note this weight as W2. The difference of weight of brick in wet and dry condition denotes the quantity of water absorb by the brick. Then the amount of water absorption is determine in percentage.

Water absorption (%) = [(W2-W1)/W1] * 100

The less water consumption by the bricks indicates their greater quality. A brick will be considered as good quality if it does not consume more than 20% water of its own weight.

3.Presence of soluble salts or Efflorescence test :
This test is perform to determine the presence of soluble salts in the brick. A good quality brick does not contain soluble salts because if the brick contains soluble salts then it will be show efflorescence after it dried which are harmful for life span of wall. Take specimen of bricks and submerged them in fresh water for 24 hours. After 24 hours they are taking out from water and left them to dry. After completely dried the bricks are closely observed to find the presence of alkali. If a white or gray layer is formed on the brick surface, it means alkali is present in the brick.

                ObservationEfflorescence
No DepositionNil
10% of the brick surface.Slight (Ok)
10% – 25 % of the brick surface.Moderate
25% – 50% of the brick surface.Heavy
>50% of the brick surface.Extreme (Serious)

4.Hardness test :
This test is performed to determine the hardness of bricks. Surface of a good brick can resist scratches from the sharp material. So when we rub the surface of bricks from hard and sharp thing it should be not show the scratches on it then it will be called hardness of brick.


5. Size, shape and color test : 
Take 20 bricks randomly and staked them along lengthwise, widthwise and heightwise and then those are measured to determine their sizes as per standard. Bricks are closely viewed to check if its edges are sharp and straight and uniform in shape. A good quality brick should have bright and uniform color throughout.

6.Soundness test :
Take 2 specimen of bricks randomly and hit them with each other. If they produces a clear metallic sound and remain itself unbroken then those bricks are good quality bricks.

7.Structure test (Internal materials) :
In this test, Take any brick randomly to observe its internal structure. If there are any lumps, flaws, impurities, cracks or holes present on that broken face then that is not a good quality brick.

8. Impact test :
In this test, some bricks are selected randomly and dropped it from 1-meter height. If bricks will break it indicates low impact value and not acceptable for construction work. Good quality bricks do not break at all.

 

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