Pipe fittings are an important component of the plumbing system. In plumbing, many types of fixtures are joined with the help of various types of material as per the requirement. Fittings are fixed in the plumbing system to join straight pipes or any section of tubes. We can say that the water-supply fittings like elbow, tee, socket, reducer, etc., are fitted to change the direction of flow, distribute the water supply from the main pipe to other pipes of equal size or lower size, etc. Any part used in connection with water supply, distribution, measurement, controlling, use and disposal of water is known as a pipe fittings.

Type of Fittings 
1. Collar 
2. Elbow 
3. Gasket 
4. Union 
5. Reducer 
6. Tee 
7. Nipple 
8. Trap 
9. Cross
10. Offset
11. Coupling
12. Adaptors 

1. Collar : While joining two pipes in the same length, collar is used. Collar is fitted in the end of pipe.

2. Elbow : It is installed at the time of joining two pipes. With the help of an elbow, the direction of liquid is changed. Normally a 45° or 90° elbow is used. When the two sides of pipes differ in size, an elbow of reducing size is used. This is called reducing type elbow or reducer type elbow. Elbows are categorized as follows—
 Long Radius (LR) Elbows : In this, the radius is 1.5 times the diameter of pipe. 
Short Radius (LR) Elbows : In this, the radius is 1.0 times the diameter of pipe. 
90° Elbow : This is used when the change in direction required is 90°.
45° Elbow : This is used when the change in direction required is 45°.

3.Gasket : They are mechanical seals, generally ring-shaped type and fitted for sealing flange joints. A flange joint is a plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to the pipe. Gaskets are made as per by construction, materials and features. Important gaskets used are nonmetallic, spiral-wound and ring-joint type.

4. Union : When two ends of pipes are joined, the pipe fitting used is called union. A union is made of three parts namely a nut, a male end and a female end. The male and female ends are assembled with the support of the nuts, and necessary pressure is made to connect the joint. Since the pairing ends of the union are interchangeable, the union can be changed easily in a short time.

5. Reducer : It is used to connect pipes of different diameters. A reducer may be of various types like reducer tee, reducer elbow and reducer socket.

6.Tee : It is an important fitting with a side outlet at 900 to the run of the pipe. Tees connect pipes of various diameters and help in changing the direction of water or material in a pipe. Tees are made in various sizes like equal or unequal.

7. Nipple : It is a piece of pipe having thread at both sides, and could be used for short extension of plumbing lines. It can also be used for connecting two fittings within small distance.

8. Traps : It is a fitting in a P, U, S or J-shaped type. Traps are fitted near a plumbing fixture. The trap bend is fitted to prevent sewer gases from entering the building. If the gases are inserted back into home, then it could lead to people inhaling  foul smell, which could cause illnesses. It could even explode.

9. Cross : When four pipes are joined,a cross is formed. It is also called a cross branch line or a four-way fitting. This fitting has three outlets and one inlet. Cross fittings may deteriorate when temperatures change, because cross fitting is made at the centre of the four connection points. 

10. Offset : When an assembly of fittings on a pipeline makes one section of pipe out of line and parallel to a second section, then it is known as an offset.

11. Coupling : A coupling is used to connect the pipes of same diameter. Coupling are also useful if the pipe is broken or leakage occurs. Generally there are two types of couplings are available. Compression coupling and slip coupling. Compression coupling is regular coupling which is connected between two pipes and it prevents leakage by the arrangement of gaskets or rubber seals on both sides, otherwise glue is provided. Slip coupling is easier to install and it contains two pipes which are arranged as one into other, inner pipe can slide up to some length. So, we can fix long length damaged pipe by slip coupling.

12. Adaptors : If the pipes are not having special ends or plain ends then adaptors make them threaded either male or female whichever is needed. Adopters are generally used for copper and PVC pipes. Male adapters contain male threads and female adapters contains female threads. One end of adapter is plain which is glued or welded or soldered to the plain pipe end.


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