WHAT IS PAINT AND TYPES OF PAINTS AND THEIR USES IN CONSTRUCTION

Every structural member such as wall, ceiling, woodenwork, metalwork etc needs being painted not only for aesthetic appearance but for protection from weather, moisture, insects and termites etc. So according to nature of surface and finishing requirement the surface should be coated with the different appropriate paints. Paint is a solution of pigment in water, oil and organic solvent. For different surfaces different types of paints required.

Different type of paints are given below

1. White wash
2. Oil paint
3. Plastic paint
4. Enamel paint
5. Emulsion paint
6. Cement based paint
7. Acrylic paint
8. Synthetic rubber paint
9. Aluminium paint
10. Distemper paint
11. Bituminous paint
12. Epoxy paint
13. Anti-condensation paint
14.Latex paint
15. Lead paint
16. Metallic paint
17. Textured paint
18. Silicon paint
19. Asbestos paint
20.Anti-corrosive paint

1. White wash :

White wash is a low cost paint made from the mixture of slaked lime and water. It has a very low opacity. Sometimes it is used with the pigments to achive more colorful walls. White wash is a low cost material.

2. Oil paint :
Oil paints usually contains base and vehicle. General base constituents used for making oil paints are white lead, zinc lead, red lead, titanium oxide and lithopone. General vehicle constituent used for making oil paints are linseed oil, tug oil, nut oil and poppy oil. Oil based paints contain thinner like turpentine, naphtha and methyl ethyl ketone etc. Oil based paints are thicker and harder. They are also glossy and smoother.

3. Plastic paint :
Plastic paint is water based wall paint. Plastic as a base is used in plastic paint. Plastic paint dries rapidly and gives aesthetic look on the wall.

4. Enamel paint :
Enamel paints are oil based paint. As a base white lead, red lead and petroleum spirit are used in enamel paints.Enamel paint dries very slowly but after dried it gets very hard film. It provides considerably glossy finish. The film of enamel paint is also impervious and smooth. This layer don't get affected by acids, alkalies and moisture.It provides excellent coverage and color retention.

5. Emulsion paint :
Emulsion paints are basically water base paints. water is used as a solvent in it. Emulsion paints are mix of two liquids which are don't mix well with each other. Two liquids can form different type of emulsions. As an example water and oil are formed two type of emulsion.The first type is oil in water emulsion, where the oil is in disperse phase and water is in dispersion medium. The second type is water in oil emulsion, where water is in disperse phase and oil is in dispersion medium. water is a medium where the binders, pigments and additives are dispersed in molecular form. Binders are polymers forming a continuous film on the surface. Binders used in this paint are alkyd resins, acrylic resins and epoxy. It is used as internal surface as well as external surface.

6. Cement based paint :
Cement based paint contains cement as a base material. They are water based paints. cement as a base is main constituent so it is responsible for hardness and durability of painted surface. This paint is available in powder form, by mixing it with water and stirred to the required consistency the paint is obtained. Cement based paints can be applied internal and external surfaces both due to their water proof ability but it is mainly used for exterior walls because of its preventing water penetration.

7. Acrylic paint : 
Acrylic paint contains synthetic acrylic resins. Acrylic dries rapidly. They are less affected by heat and other external weathering forces than oil paint. They are water soluble but when dries they become a water resistance.

8. Synthetic rubber paint :
Synthetic rubber paints are made by dissolving synthetic resins in the suitable solvents. They are used on concrete walls. This paint is less affected by rain and sunlight. It has also good resistance properties against acid, alkalies and moisture conditions. They dries rapidly and gets hard surface.

9. Aluminium paint :
Aluminium paint is a coating material which is made by the mixture of oil varnish and aluminium pigments in the form of thin flakes. Film of this paint is reflects ultraviolet rays of sun well. It retains the temperature in water pipes and tanks.The resin helps the paint flow and gives it strength and durability, while the aluminium flakes gives shiny and metallic finish to the surface. This type of paint can be used for wooden and metallic both surface. Aluminium paints has many advantages like waterproof, resistance against electricity, corrosion and weathering etc.

10. Distemper paint :
Distemper paints are water based paints. The major constituents of distemper paints are chalk, lime, water and some color pigments. Distemper paints are available in powder and paste form. It is cheaper than other paints.

11. Bituminous paint :
Bituminous paints are made from asphalt bitumen and coal tar mixed which is dissolved in naphtha  and mineral spirit. Bitumen paints are black in color but suitable coloring pigments may be added for obtain desirable color. Bitumen paints are alkaline resistance hence it is used for under water structure, weather protecting steelwork, waterproofing, concrete and potable water tanks. It is widely used for metal structure in under water conditions.

12. Epoxy paint :  
Epoxy paints are made from epoxy resins. Epoxy resins are thermosetting synthetic resins contains epoxy group. It is formed by cross linking reaction of epoxy group. It is used primarily as a floor covering which forms hard and shiny surface upon application.

13. Anti-condensation paint :.
Anti-condensation paints are design to reduce the formation of condensation of moisture under intermittenly dry and humid condition. Such a material normally has a matt finish


14.Latex paint :
Latex is a white milky liquid extruding from the tree. They can be applied on walls, concrete and wood.

15. Lead paint : 
The paint which contains 5% or more than it lead oxide is called lead paint. They are widely used to paint wooden surfaces in home.

16. Metallic paint :
A paint which contains flask of aluminium, copper, bronze, stainless steel or other metallic material which gives metallic appearance is called metallic paint. Such paints are generally used to paint mettalic surfaces.

17. Textured paint :
Textured paint consists course grains of gypsum, sand, metal with the water thinner binder used for creating the rough pattern on the wall. In this paint different types of styles can be created on wall. It can be apply on internal and external both walls.

18. Silicon paint : 
Silicon paint is special type of paint in which alkyd resins are modified by adding silicon. It has excellent durability, toughness, good resistance to cracking and abrasive resistance. It can also resist temperature changes.
19. Asbestos paint :
Asbestos paint is made by fibrous asbestos.It is used in coverage of leakage in metal roof, for patch works, for protecting surfaces from acid, gases and steam.

20.Anti-corrosive paint :
As per name, anti-corrosive paint is used to resist corrosion in metals. So this type of paint is mostly used to paint surfaces like pipes and external steel structures.



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