TYPES OF BEAM IN CONSTRUCTION

A beam is horizontal structural member using to transfer loads from slab to column. It is typically used for resisting vertically loads, shear forces and bending moments. Various types of beam are used in construction according to  its requirement.

Beams can be classified into many types based on their manner of support, cross-section shape, length and their material.

Different types of beams are given below :

1. Based on given support 
2. Based on geometry
3. Based on equilibrium conditions
4. Based on cross-section
5. Based on construction material
6. Based on method of casting

   1. Based on given support :

  • Simply supported beam
  • Cantilever beam
  • Continuous beam
  • Fixed beam
  • Overhanging beam

1. Simply supported beam : 
This type of beam is rested on support from its both ends. It has pinned support at one end and rolled support at other end. depending on the load condition it sustain shearing and bending.

2. Cantilever Beam :
This type of beam is fixed at the one end and set to be free at the other end. This beam distribute load back to the support where it is forced with the shear stress and bending moment. Cantilever beams are used for balconies, passages and elevation purposes.

3. Continuous beam :
This type of beam is similar to simply supported beam except it has a multiple supports more than two which are distributed along its entire length.

4. Fixed beam :
This type of beam is fixed at the both ends of it and resist to rotation.It does not allow vertical movement and rotation of the beam. It is only under shear stress and no moment produces in this beams. It is used in trusses, and other structure.

5. Over hanging beam :
This type of beam is extending from one or both support beyond its support. If its one end extending, then it is called single overhanging beam and if its both end extending, then it is called double overhanging beam.

   2. Based on geometry :
  • Straight beam
  • curved beam 
  • tapered beam 
1. Straight beam :
This type of beam has straight profile, Most of structures contain this type of beams.

2. Curved beam :
This type of beam has curved profile, Round shaped structures contain curved beams.

3. Tapered beam :
This type of beam has tapered cross section. Some cantilever beams has this type of cross section.

   3. Based on equilibrium conditions :
  • Statically determinate beam
  • Statically indeterminate beam
1. Statically determinate beam :
A beam is called determinate beam if it can be analyze by the basic equilibrium condition. The support reaction can be found by using basic equilibrium condition. These conditions are Summation of all horizontal forces is zero. Summation of all vertical forces is zero. Summation of all moments is zero.
Example: Simply supported beam, Cantilever beam etc.

2. Statically indeterminate beam :
A beam is called indeterminate beam If it cannot be analyze by using basic equilibrium condition. The end reaction find out by using basic equilibrium condition with combination of other conditions like strain energy method, virtual work method etc. 
Example: Continuous beam, fixed beam.

   4. Based on cross section :
  • "I" beam
  • "T" beam
  • "C" beam
1. "I" beam :
This beam types has "I" cross section as shown in figure. It has high resistance of bending.

2. "T" beam :
This beam types has "T" cross section as shown in figure. 

3. "C" beam :
This beam types has "C" cross section as shown in figure.

   5. Based on construction material :
  • Reinforced cement concrete beam
  • Steel beam
  • Timber beam
  • Composite beam
1. Reinforced cement concrete beam :
This type of beam is made from the concrete and binding of steel rods.

2. Steel beam :
This type of beam is usually used in steel structures.

3. Timber beam :
This type of beams was used many years ago when concrete was not came. Some countries are used this type of beams presently. Its usage is decline now.

4. Composite beam :
This type of beam is made from steel member and concrete member both.

   6. Based on method of casting :
  • Cast in-situ concrete beam
  • precast beam
  • prestressed beam
1. Cast in-situ concrete beam :
This type of beam is constructed on project site. Hence, The forms are initially fixed then fresh concrete is poured and allowed to be hardened. Then loads will be imposed.

2. Precast Beam :
This type of beam is casted or constructed in factory. And will be execute at site after gaining strength.

3. Prestressed beam :
This type of beam constructed by stressing strands prior to applying loads on the beam. Pre-tensioned Concrete beam and post-tensioned Concrete Beam are variations of pre-stressed concrete beam.





 

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