TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MASONRY WORK

SOME IMPORTANT TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN MASONRY WORK

  1. COURSE :-  A horizontal layer of bricks is known as course. Its thickness is generally equal to the thickness of a brick plus the thickness of one mortar joint.
  2. HEADER :- A full brick unit laid with its length perpendicular to the face of the wall is known as header.
  3. STRETCHER :- A full brick unit laid with its length parallel to the face of the wall is known as stretcher.
  4. BOND :- It is a method of putting joints in the whole wall or overlapping of bricks in wall in alternate courses.
  5. BED :- It is the lower surface of bricks in each course. It is also known as a surface on which the bricks laid.
  6. FACE :- The surface of the wall exposed to the weather is called face.
  7. BACK :- The inner surface of wall which is not exposed to weather is called back.
  8. SIDE :- It is the surface forming the boundary of bricks in the direction transverse to the face and bed.
  9. JOINT :- It is a junction of two or more bricks. If the joint is parallel to bed of brick it is known as bed joint. If the joints are perpendicular to the bed joint then they are termed as simply or vertical or side joints.
  10. COPING :-  A covering of stone, concrete, brick of terracota placed on the exposed top of an external wall is termed as coping.
  11. LINTEL :- A horizontal member of steel or reinforced concrete to support the masonry above the opening of doors, windows and ventilations is known as lintel.
  12. QUOIN :- The exterior angle or corner of the wall is called quoin. The brick forming quoin is called quoin brick.
  13. HEARTING :- The inner portion of wall between the facing and backing is known as hearting.
  14. CLOSER :- The portion of brick cut in such a way that its one long face remains uncut, is known as closer.
  15. BAT :- The portion of brick cut across the width is known as bat. so bat is smaller in length than the full brick.
  16. FROG :- The indentation and depression at the top face of the brick is called frog.
  17. SILL :- A horizontal member of stone, concrete or wood provided to give support for the vertical member of a wooden window is called sill.
  18. STRING COURSE :- The continuous horizontal course of masonry, projecting from the face of the wall for shedding rain water off the face is called string course.
  19. JAMB :- The vertical side of the finish opening for the door, window or fire place etc. are known as jmb.
  20. REVEAL :- The exposed vertical surfaces left on the sides of an opening after the door or window frame has been fitted in position are known as reveal.
  21. CORNICE :- A horizontal moulded projection provided near the top of building is called cornice.
  22. CORBEL :- A projecting stone which is usually provided to serve as support for joist, roof, truss, weather shed etc. is known as corbel.
  23. BLOCKING COURSE :- A course of stone masonry provided immediately above the cornice is called blocking course.
  24. FRIEZE :- A course of stone provided immediately below the cornice is called frieze.
  25. GABLE :- A triangular shaped portion of masonry a the end of a sloped roof is called gable.
  26. PERPAND :- An imaginary vertical line which includes the vertical joint separating two adjoining bricks is called perpand. 
  27. PLINTH :- The horizontal projecting or flush course of stone or brick provided at the base of the wall above the ground level is known as plinth.
  28. ARCH :- The mechanical arrangement of wedge shaped blocks of stone or brick arrange in the form of curve supporting the masonry and load above the opening.
  29. LACING COURSE :- A horizontal course of stone blocks provide to strengthen the wall made of irregular courses of small stones is called lacing course.
  30. SPALLS :- The chips or small pieces of stone obtained as a result of reducing big blocks of stones into the regular stone blocks are called spalls.
  31. BUTTRESS :- A sloping or stepped masonry projection from a tall wall intended to strengthen the wall against the thrust of a roof or arch is called buttress.
  32. SETTING :- The process of placing the stone in its position in masonry construction is called setting.
  33. THRESHOLD :- The arrangement of steps provided from ground level to reach plinth level on external doors and verandahs is termed as threshold.
  34. ARRISES :- The edges formed by the intersection of the plane surfaces of brick are called arrises.
  35. BEVELLED CLOSER :- It is a portion of brick obtained by the cutting the brick in such a way that half width is maintained at one end and full width at other end.
  36. QUEEN CLOSER :- It is a portion of brick obtained by the cutting of brick lengthwise into two portions. In the other word, It is brick which is half as wide as full brick.
  37. KING CLOSER :- It is a portion of brick which is so cut that the width of its one end is half that of the full brick, While the width of the other end is equal to the full width.It is thus obtained by cutting a triangular portion of the brick such that half header and half stretcher is obtained on joining the cut face.
  38. MITRED CLOSER :- It is the portion of brick obtained by cutting the triangular portion of the brick through its width and making an angle of 45 to 60 degree with length of the brick.
  39. BULL NOSE :- A brick moulded with the rounded angle is called bull nose. 
  40. LAP :- The horizontal distance between the vertical joints of successive courses is termed as lap. 

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